Indian Journal of Health Social Work
A STUDY ON STUDENTS EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE & SELF ESTEEM
1 Student, Department of psychology, Starex University, Gurugram, Haryana, 2 Psychiatric Social Worker, Department of Psychiatry, KCGMC, Karnal, Haryana
Correspondence: Prashant Srivastava, email: email@example.com
In the effort to build a prosperous nation, the development of human capital and quality human resources cannot be overlooked and are closely linked. School students are among those who play a key role in leading the nation in the future. In fact, the credibility of the student depends on the degree of his positive self-development and mastery of soft skills in solving future challenges and problems. During school life, positive self-confidence and good emotional intelligence will help school pupils to adapt. In the long run, they will also help college students cope with real-world challenges. Emotional intelligence as a term did not enter our language until around 1990. Although it is a relatively new term, interest in the term has grown tremendously since then. Already in the 1930s, psychologist Edward Thorndike described the concept of “social intelligence” as the ability to get along with other people. During the 1940s, psychologist David Wechsler proposed that different effective components of intelligence may play an important role in how successful people are in life. The 1950s saw the rise of a school of thought known as humanistic psychology, and thinkers such as Abraham Maslow focused more attention on the different ways people could build emotional strength. Another important concept that emerged in the development of emotional intelligence was the notion of multiple intelligences. This concept was put forward in the mid-1970s by Howard Gardner, who introduced the idea that intelligence is more than just a single general ability. It was not until 1985 that he first used the term “emotional intelligence” in Wayne Payne’s doctoral thesis. In a 1987 article published in Mensa Magazine, Keith Beasley used the term “emotional quotient”. “In today’s world, emotional intelligence (EI) is the common denominator of success and has the highest importance in every sphere of life (Carmeli et al. , 2007). Holistic achievement includes 39 Indian Journal of Health Social Work. 4(2) July-December, 2022 both intellectual and EI (Sulaiman, 2013). EI defines “The ability to recognize the meanings of emotions and their relationships and to reason and solve based on them. EI is involved in the ability to perceive emotions, assimilate feelings related to emotions, understand information about those emotions, and manage them.” (Mayer, Caruso & Salovey, 1999, p. 267). EI is an antecedent of several positive psychological traits. Yost and Tucker (2000) confirm the links of emotional intelligence with reduced rates of depression, better mental health functioning, self-esteem and responsibility for good teamwork skills. Self-esteem is conceptualized as holistic feelings of worth and competence or a sense of personal acceptance, worth and kindness (Coopersmith, 1967; Lyubomirsky et al, 2006; Rosenberg, 1965) States of high self-esteem and positive mood associated with EI (Schutte , Simunek, Mc Kenley and Hollander , 2002). Self-esteem is responsible for academic and occupational success, happiness, and interpersonal harmony (Redenbach, 1991). Attention to investigating plausible associations between EI and students’ selfesteem is evident from many studies. Research has shown a positive correlation between EI and self-esteem of students in Pakistan (Bibi, Saqlain, & Mussawar, 2016). A positive association between EI and selfesteem has been reported (Country & Chester (2005). Nnabuife, Chukwuemeka, Chinwendu, Ephraim, and Ikechukwu (2018) obtained a positive association between EI, self-esteem, and other variables of age, global emotional intelligence, emotion perception, and management among postgraduates students. Studies have shown a positive relationship between EI and self-esteem (Country & Chester, 2005; Bibi et al., 2016; shamsaei et al., 2017). People with low self-esteem tend to feel less confident in their abilities and may doubt their decision-making process. They may not feel motivated to try new things because they don’t believe they are capable of achieving their goals. People with low self-esteem may have problems with relationships and expressing their needs. They may also experience low self-esteem and feel unloved and unworthy. People with high self-esteem may overestimate their skills and may feel entitled to success even though they lack the skills to support their self-belief. They may struggle with relationships and block themselves from self-improvement because they are so fixated on perfection. The aim of these initiatives is not only to improve health and well-being, but also to help students succeed in their studies and prevent bullying. There are many examples of how emotional intelligence can play a role in everyday life. Thinking before reacting Emotionally intelligent people know that emotions can be strong but also temporary. When a highly charged emotional event occurs, such as getting angry with a co-worker, an emotionally intelligent response would be to take some time to react. This allows everyone to calm their emotions and think more rationally about all the factors surrounding the argument. Greater Self-Awareness Emotionally intelligent people are not only good at thinking about how other people might feel, but they are also adept at understanding their own feelings. Self-awareness allows people to consider the many different factors that contribute to their emotions. Empathy for Others A big part of emotional intelligence is being able to think and empathize with how other people feel. This often involves considering how you would react if you were in the same situation. People with strong emotional intelligence are able to consider other people’s perspectives, experiences, and emotions and use this information to explain why people behave the way they do. People with high self-esteem may overestimate their skills and may feel entitled to success even A STUDY ON STUDENTS EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE& SELF ESTEEM 40 Indian Journal of Health Social Work. 4(2) July-December, 2022 though they lack the skills to support their selfbelief. They may struggle in relationships and block themselves from self-improvement because they are so fixated on seeing themselves as perfect. Many theorists have written about the dynamics involved in the development of selfesteem. The concept of self-esteem plays an important role in psychologist Abraham Maslow’s hierarchy of needs, which depicts esteem as one of the basic human motivations. Maslow suggested that individuals need both appreciation from other people and internal self-esteem to build selfesteem. Both of these needs must be fulfilled so that the individual can grow personally and achieve self-realization. It is important to note that self-esteem is a distinct concept from self-esteem, which includes how well you think you can handle future actions, performance, or abilities. Studies such as Abbas (2011), Brody and Hall (2000), Ciarrochi et al. (2005), Katyal and Awasthi (2005), and Hall and Mast (2008) suggest that females tend to score higher on EI compared to males. However, Jennabadi (2014) found no gender differences in EI. Additionally, King et al. (1999), Nupur and Mahapatro (2016), and Zeinvand (2006) suggest that college-educated men may have higher self-esteem than women. EI has been identified as a predictor of academic improvement, and it aids in resource development, knowledge acquisition, and talent utilization (Ciarrochi et al., 2006). Shah, Nazir, and Zamir (2019) reported a positive correlation between EI and self-esteem among school-going students, with significant gender differences. They highlight the importance of these variables in the healthy development of individuals and the country’s social capital. However, Bibi et al. (2020) did not find gender differences in emotional intelligence while studying its relationship with aggression in Pakistan. Mehmood and Gulzar (2004) found a positive relationship between EI and self-esteem, suggesting that emotionally intelligent individuals receive positive responses from society, contributing to their overall effectiveness. Samin (2016) conducted a study on self-esteem and depression among college students and found a significant negative relationship between self-esteem and depression, indicating that high selfesteem can contribute to higher academic excellence and reduced stress levels. The literature highlights the need for comprehensive research with larger samples from different cities/provinces in Pakistan to obtain a holistic understanding of young adults. The findings have been inconsistent across studies, warranting further exploration. Additionally, Brown et al. (1998) found that self-esteem tends to decline during adolescence, with varying patterns across different ethnic groups. Some studies indicate that boys may have higher global self-esteem than girls during early adolescence (Chubb et al., 1997)
- To find the relationship of emotional intelligence and self-esteem between adolescence.
- To determine if there is any significant difference in their emotional intelligence and self-esteem based on the following demographic variables.
There will be no significant difference between self-esteem and emotional intelligence between men and women. H1: Adolescents will differ significantly in their emotional intelligence and self-esteem scores. H2: Adolescents will differ significantly in their emotional intelligence and self-esteem with respect to gender.
This study included students of KV School in Mathana Kurukshetra who were randomly selected from class 10 with an age range of 15-17 years. A total of 500 students took part in the study, of which 300 were women and 200 were men. Before the actual data collection, a pilot study was conducted to verify the feasibility of conducting the study. Sample Informed Consent for Research: Contains brief details about the purpose of the study along with voluntary participation without any financial or tangible gains. It also ensured participants’ privacy and reserved the right to withdraw from the study at any stage. Demographic Form: Includes participant personal information related to age, gender, standard, area of residence, socio-economic status, education and contact details. Research design. A quantitative survey method was used to collect the data needed for this study. Both descriptive and inferential statistical analysis of t-test and correlation were conducted mainly to answer the research question using SPSS version 26v.
Emotional Intelligence Self-Assessment
Tool Adapted from Emily A. Sterrett, Ph D., In the manager’s pocket guide to emotional intelligence, 2000, HRD press Amherst, MA and from Daniel E Feldman’s handbook of emotionally intelligent leadership, 1999. This scale has four competencies: selfawareness, self-management, managing social awareness, managing relationships, your score on these four components of emotional intelligence can range from a low of 5 to a high of 25. Any component where you score below 18 is an area in which you could improve 1. Never 2, Rarely, 3 Sometimes, 4 Usually, 5 Always
It was used to study adolescent society and self-esteem. A ten-item scale that measures global self-esteem by measuring both positive and negative feelings about oneself. The scale is assumed to be one-dimensional. All items are answered using a 4-point Likert scale ranging from strongly agree to strongly disagree It approaches the holistic self-worth of individuals. 10 statements represent a holistic sense of self-acceptance or self-worth, rated using a Likert scale (4 – strongly disagree – 1 – strongly agree). Internal consistency ranged from 0.77-0.88; temporal stability showed a range of 0.82-0.85. The A STUDY ON STUDENTS EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE& SELF ESTEEM 42 Indian Journal of Health Social Work. 4(2) July-December, 2022 construct validity of the scale showed negative relationships with anxiety, anomia, and depression (Rosenberg, 1965).
Questionnaires were manually distributed and collected from participants in the respective faculties. Data was collected over a period of one month (March 2022–April 2022). At KV Mathana Kurukshetra School. The participants were approached by the researchers and given study materials. Data were simultaneously entered and analyzed using SPSS-23.
The main research objectives were to examine the relationship between self-esteem and emotional intelligence, with the prediction that, along with recent research supporting the idea, there would be a positive correlation between the two variables and that adolescents would differ significantly in their emotional intelligence and self-esteem. respect with regard to gender. The results of the study showed a positive relationship between El and the self-esteem of school students show agreement with previous results (Country & Chester, 2005; Bibi et al., 2016; Shamsaei et al., 2017; Yahya & Ahmed, 2006). results suggest that EI enables adaptive coping mechanisms that provide support for academic achievement; and are positively associated with high selfesteem and greater academic improvement (Salovey, Stroud, Woolery, & Epel 2002; Chiva &, Allerge, 2008). effusively maximize abilities (Ciarrochi, Forgas & Mayer, 2006). Strong EI and self-esteem are responsible for healthy personality traits, happiness, success; and overall improved well-being ((King et al., 1999; Nupur & Mahapatro, 2016; Zeinvand, 2006).). The results showed that men have higher El than women, confirming earlier studies that missed that men tend to be more emotionally expressive, understand emotions better, have better interpersonal skills to recognize the emotions of others, and demonstrate higher levels of empathy compared to women (King et al., 1999; Nupur & Mahapatro, 2016; Zeinvand, 2006)). The results also showed that males have higher self-esteem compared to females, agreeing with research indicating that males exhibited higher self-esteem compared to females (Zeinvand, 2006 Baumeister, 1993; Pipher, 1994, Harper & Marshell, 1991). The result also shows a significant difference in both variables in males shows a significant difference with EI which is at 0.001 and selfesteem (0.282) compared to females. Table 2 shows the mean and standard deviation of EI and self-rating of both variables for men and women. EI for male is (79.433, 4.78419) & female is (77.6250, 3.26153); also SE for A STUDY ON STUDENTS EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE& SELF ESTEEM 43 Variable Male N=300 M±SD Female N=200 M±SD t df p Age (in Year) 16.03 ±.85 15.90 ±.80 1.74 498 .081 EI 79.43±4.78 77.62±3.26 4.670 498 <.0001 SE 28.28±2.58 27.15±2.75 4.679 498 <.0001 Table 2: Mean Differences between Male and Female study participants in terms of Age, EI and SE Table 2 shows the number of participants in the gender group, i.e. male and female, and the average number of males (N= 300) and females (N=200) in relation to age, EI and SE and shows how age positively influences towards variable. The t-test value indicates a significant difference only in the EI and SE variable. Indian Journal of Health Social Work. 4(2) July-December, 2022 male is (28.2833, 2.58042) and for female is (27.1500, 2.75963). The results also showed that males have higher self-esteem compared to females, agreeing with research indicating that males showed higher self-esteem compared to females (Zeinvand, 2006; Baumeister, 1993; Pipher, 1994, Harper & Marshell, 1991). Based on the results, it can be concluded that there is a positive relationship between emotional intelligence and self-esteem.
The results provide valuable insights into the interconnectedness of EI and students’ selfesteem. It infers the necessity of emotional interventions to facilitate well-being and serves as a key aspect of the educational curriculum to address emotional maturity as well as build self-esteem among students. The findings of this research can also be used by school counselors who deal directly with the student, they can better understand how to enable boys and girls to identify self-esteem problems and thus contribute to the selfregulation of their emotions. This, in turn, will increase students’ academic productivity and provide them with intrapersonal tools to maneuver in their academic growth. They can also gain insight into how falling behind in these skills can hinder their growth.
Limitations in the study can be seen in terms of the impact of EI and SE on academic performance. This can be understood by considering the beneficial effect of high emotional intelligence that will lead to emotional maturity that will ultimately improve emotion regulation skills. On the other hand, self-esteem could be considered as a predictor of problem-solving skills. Selfesteem can be used as an assessment tool to study the decision-making process as well as risk-taking behavior.
Outcomes hold significance for academicians, teachers, and policymakers to introduce educational interventions and plans with an active focus towards gender differences on harbouring EI and self-esteem of pupils to enhance academic performance. The insight on gender differences can assist them in tailoring specific interventional strategies for boys and girls separately.
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Conflict of interest: None
Role of funding source: None