Mental Health and Well-Being of Child: A Global Mental Health Praxis

Mental Health and Well-Being of Child: A Global Mental Health Praxis

Fayaz Ahmad Paul1, Danishwar Rasool Dar2, & Arif Ali3

1Ph.D Scholar, Department of Psychiatric Social Work, Lokopriya Gopinath Bordoloi, Regional Institute of Mental Health, Tezpur, Assam, 2Ph.D Scholar, Department of Psychiatric Social Work, Lokopriya Gopinath Bordoloi, Regional Institute of Mental Health, Tezpur, Assam, 3Associate Professor, Department of Psychiatric Social Work, Institute of Human Behaviour and Allied Sciences (IHBAS), Dilshad Garden, New Delhi

Correspondence: Fayaz Ahmad Paul, e-mail id:


The magnitude of mental health problems in children and adolescents has not been recognized sufficiently by many governments and various policies and decision-makers. The epidemiology of these issues is a foundation for service design and the state of children’s mental health services in various parts of the world. The fundamentals and approaches to treating children’s and adolescents’ mental health issues, as well as the function of global organizations and advocacy groups. Mental health has become progressively recognized as an important issue in worldwide health, but child mental health has largely remained in its shadows. Globally mental health problems affect 10–20% of children and adolescents. The mental health requirements of children and adolescents are not met, especially in low-income and middle-income countries, even though they constitute a major source of health-related disability in this age group and have longlasting effects on individuals’ lives. Action is imperative to reduce the burden of mental health problems in future generations and to allow for the full development of vulnerable children and adolescents worldwide.

Keywords: Well-being, Child, Services, Global Mental Health, Psychiatry

The prevalence and importance of child mental health problems have been progressively recognized in recent years. From a historical viewpoint, child psychiatry, as well as child mental health in general, are relatively recent fields within health care. While child mental health issues are essential in their own right, they frequently lead directly to adult mental health issues (Patel et al., 2013). For children’s healthy emotional, social, physical, and cognitive development, psychological well being is crucial, and this is widel y acknowledged. The effectiveness of various therapies to enhance children’s mental health and treat mental health issues and disorders is now well supported by the available research (Wenceslau et al., 2015). It has been a big challenge for the country’s available mental health experts to lead efforts for promotion, prevention, identification, and early intervention in child mental health due to their clinical preoccupations.
Although there were some early efforts to offer care for children with mental health issues by faith-based and philanthropic groups, as well as attentive and kind lay advocates, formal clinical work with children and teenagers did not truly begin until early in the twentieth century, with Maudsley’s publications on childhood mental illness, Anna Freud’s papers on child psychotherapy, and Kanner’s clinical findings on what we now call autism spectrum disorder (Rey et al., 2015). Mental health experts did not have clinical studies of medication until the 1960s, beginning with Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder by John Werry. What began as a specialist speciality service has now rapidly spread, not only in Western nations but also globally (Tan et al., 2008). A growing need for mental health care among children and teens is becoming increasingly apparent and is currently considered an epidemic
Psychosocial stressors associated with social determinants such as poverty, famine, war, refugee relocation, discrimination, racial and ethnic inequities, and a lack of support for families in their child-rearing roles have been the main forces behind such an explosion in need in recent years (Fergusson & Horwood (2001). Furthermore, as Chachar and Mian point out, children’s mental health needs are becoming more prominent as the more fundamental requirements of food, shelter, and social securit y are addressed in underdeveloped countries (Rutter, 2011). Three recent events have accelerated the development and extension of children’s mental health services around the world. These have enclosed the growing body of scientific and research findings about child development, diagnostic identification, and treatments, all of which eventually support a biopsychosocial approach (Mian, 2022). The spread of specialized training and services for children and youth, initially in western countries but increasingly spreading to many other parts of the world. At the same time, as global development has expanded, we have seen larger levels of negative social factors, which raise the likelihood of mental diseases impacting children and teens and resulting in a variety of negative outcomes suicide, traumatic stress, and increasing rates of developmental disorders (Rodway et al., 2016).
Throughout its brief history, the theory, science, and practice of child and adolescent mental health have placed a heavy emphasis on the social, from various Emeritus thinkers like (Sigmund Freud, John Piaget, Maria Montessori, George Herbert, Eric Erickson, and Lev Vygotsky) (Pumariega & Joshi (2010) who linked culture to appropriate psychosocial and psychological development to the recent science of epigenetics, (Lester et al., 2011) which demonstrates the biological influence of bad social factors through genetic mutations to the growing evidence of how cultural changes affect mental health. We also recognized early on how family and community strengths and su pports are critical components of the healing environment for effective treatment and have incorporated them into some of our most modern care models, such as the community method of concern (Pumariega et al., 2017). WHO recognizes a deficit in Children’s mental health services. While there are effective treatments for psychiatric diseases. According to the World Health Organization, many people with these conditions go untreated. Every fifth child is affected by a mental health condition (World Health Organization, 2001).
This editorial emphasizes the role of socialecological factors and social context in many aspects of children’s mental health, as well as in a variety of international contexts. The negative influence of socioeconomic determinants on children’s mental health, as shown by the review article on poverty, hunger, and homelessness, (Pumariega et al., 2022) the impact of the India and Pakistan conflict in the region of Kashmir, the recent Russia-Ukraine war, (Mihajlovic & Segalit (2022) the chronic refugee existence under occupation in Palestine, the loss of parents and caregivers in the Covid-19 pandemics (Cagande et al., 2022) and the increasing strain of urbanization in developing nations viz Indonesia, Malaysia, Turkey (Yilmaz et al., 2022). Special issues linked with social, mental health, and physical adversities, such as the continued challenge of treating trauma in children and youth, the impact of increasing teenage social isolation and its relationship to the psychosocial construct of anomie, and the reasons leading to the growing trend of juvenile mass shooters (Rothe E, 2022).
The specific obligation of child and adolescent psychiatrists and child mental health experts is to serve as advocates for children facing abuses by governments and their agents during the immigration process, as a result of military occupation, a result of active combat, and as advocates for children’s mental health services and supports in developing countries(Guzman et al., 2022). The use of systematic clinical techniques and tools to aid with risk identification, leveraging limited services through consultative service and addressing psychological service needs for children in various national and service system contexts, such as the use of systematic suici de screening for adolescents in healthcare settings, provision of collaborative treatment through primary care child psychiatry consultation, and the use of level of care intensity tools to assist with risk identification (Millsaps & Richardson (2022).
Mental health disorders are very popular. The prevalence of mental health disorders in children and adolescents is almost 15% worldwide. With the recognition that 50% of mental health disorders begin by the age of 14 and 75% by the age of 24, child and adolescent mental health has become a global priority. This editorial is only a small sample of the work that child mental health specialists and researchers conduct daily around the world. By offering this exceptional intermittent, we hope to bring the agenda of child and family mental health to the forefront of psychiatry, as well as the agenda of addressi ng unfavorable social determinants to the attention of policymakers worldwide, and addressing the negative socioeconomi c determinants of mental health is possibly the most effective strategy to child mental health and developmental prevention all over the world
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Conflict of interest: None
Role of funding source: None

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