Indian Journal of Health Social Work
Psychosocial Issues Associated With Mining Industry: A Brief Review
Shuvabrata Poddar,1 Urbi Mukherjee,2 Natasha Shasmal,3 Madhumita Panday 4
1Assistant Professor, Department of Applied Psychology and Project Investigator KNU UGC STRIDE, Kazi Nazrul University, Asansol, West Bengal India, 2Assistant Professor, Department of Applied Psychology and Co-Project Investigator KNU UGC STRIDE, Kazi Nazrul University, Asansol, West Bengal India, 3-4Project Assistant, KNU UGC STRIDE, Kazi Nazrul University, Asansol, West Bengal India
Correspondence: Shuvabrata Poddar, e-mail id: firstname.lastname@example.org
In recent years there has been a growing awareness among mining companies of the need to address physical injuries and environmental issues, there remains a lack of knowledge about how psychosocial risks independently and in conjunction with physical risks affect the health, general wellbeing and quality of life of mine workers. The accidents of coal mine happened frequently, so strengthening the safety psychological education in the coal mine safety management, further training on control psychosocial factors, which cause accidents and low productivity through the safety education and then improving staff’s and workers’ psychological quality should go first in reducing safety accidents, which is also one of the best way to prevent the coal mine accidents. This paper focused on the exploration of psychosocial factors associated with productivity and accidents in mining industry.
Mining is the process of digging things out of the ground. Any material that cannot be grown must be mine. There are four main mining methods: underground, open surface (pit), placer, and inset mining. A worker in a mine is called a miner. Underground mining is a dangerous job. Many mines have accidents. Hundreds of miners die every year from accidents mostly in poor countries. Safety rules and special safety equipment is used to try and protect miners from accidents. Accidents can reduce the production of mining industry. The accidents not only occur due to natural causes but also it include psychosocial and human induced causes.
Social factors include general factors at the level of human society concerned with social structure
Psychological factors include individual-level processes and meanings that influence mental states. Sometimes, these words are combined as “psychosocial.” This is shorthand term for the combination of psychological and social, but it also implies that the effect of social processes are sometimes mediated through psychological understanding (Stansfeld & Rasul, 2007). In developing and industrialised societies, both work and living environments can be major sources of adverse psychosocial factors which result in stressful experiences. Positive psychosocial factors can act as health-maintaining and health- enhancing agents.
Psychosocial factors at work refer to interactions between and among work environment, job content, organizational conditions and workers’
capacities, needs, culture, personal extra-job considerations that may, through perceptions and experience, influence health, work performance and job satisfaction. The International Labor Office (ILO) defines psychosocial stressors as ‘interactions between and among work environment, job content, organizational conditions and workers’ capacities, needs, culture, personal extra-job considerations that may, through perceptions and experience, influence health, work performance and job satisfaction’ (ILO, 1986). ‘Psychosocial stressors, as the word implies, reflect both psychological and social aspects involving the subject and his/her surrounding environment’ (Sobeih et al., 2006).
An accident, mishap or misadventure is an unforeseen and unplanned event or circumstance, often with lack of intention or necessity. It usually implies a generally negative outcome which might have been avoided or prevented. A mine accident is an accident that occurs during the process of mining. Thousands of miners die from mine accidents every year. And although safer modern mining methods have been introduced, mine accidents are still the cause of casualties and financial losses. Mine accidents can have a variety of causes, including leaks of poisonous gases such as hydrogen sulphide or explosive natural gases, especially firedamp or methane, dust explosions, collapsing of mine stopes, toxic gases arising from mine fires, mining-induced seismicity, flooding, or general mechanical errors from improperly used or malfunctioning mining equipment. Mine accidents mainly occur in the coal mining and underground mines sector.
Productivity is concerned with producing output efficiently, and it specifically addresses the relationship of output and the inputs used to produce the outputs. Productivity is the relationship between what comes out of the organizational system, in terms of quality products and services that satisfy human needs, and what goes into the organizational system, in terms of the resources consumed to generate those products and services. Productivity according to Karrem (2002), Wilberfore (2004) and Wilson (2005) denotes the actual ratio of input to output of any work organization. To Armstrong (2002) productivity is concerned with the process of achieving the ultimate goals of the organization in terms of processing the input to reflect the expected output of the system.
Worker’s productivity in the workplace is a clear objective of any organization. In order to improve worker’s productivity, there is a need to reduce the stresses at the workplace (Javad & Aghajeri, 2014). Reports and scientific literature show that psychosocial risks are a growing challenge related to worker safety and productivity (Leka, & Jain, 2010). Work-related stress is believed to be a major cost to organisations and countries as it affects productivity, notably through absenteeism and presentism (OSHA, 2012). Psychological and social aspects of work are important factors in every workplace, and acceptance that these factors have an impact on the health and well- being of workers has grown in recent decades (Galletta et al., 2016). Psychological and social aspects of work create the psychosocial stresses that critically influence the performance of employee in an organization (Safdar, Badir, & Afsar, 2017). Psychosocial stressors include the way work is carried out, i.e., deadlines, workload and work methods; and the context in which work occurs, i.e., relationships and interactions with managers or supervisors, co-workers and clients or customers (Stajkovic & Luthans, 2003). Psychosocial stressors such as work organization, time allocation, social relationships, job content and high workload put considerable mental and social demands on the worker. According to a World Health Organization (WHO) report, several researchers showed the importance of the effects of psychosocial stressors on employee well-being (Leka & Jain, 2010). In fact, scientific evidence shows that in the long term, external stresses and burnout can contribute to hypertension, health problems and lower productivity (Aslam & Safdar, 2012; Galletta et al., 2016).
Job satisfaction has been one of the most researched areas. Job satisfaction as a form or positive emotional attitude as a result of work experience in the organization (Akafo & Boateng, 2015). Akafo & Boateng then explained that job satisfaction can be formed from the efforts of organizations to give recognition to employees who have competence. Danish & Ali (2010) states that increasing employee job satisfaction is one of the main tasks of management, especially for employees who are experienced and have good performance. They are the most important resource among the resources that the organization has. Increased job satisfaction can be achieved by giving awards and recognition to these employees. Interaction with fellow coworkers and superiors in the organization, following rules and policies, meeting performance standards, working conditions and other factors can influence job satisfaction or dissatisfaction in the organization. Coffey (2013) which states that there is a direct influence between rewards and recognition of job satisfaction and motivation. Tessema et al. (2013) also found results that acknowledgment, salary, and employment benefits have a significant effect on job satisfaction. Masia and Pienaar (2011) investigated the relationship between work stress, job insecurity, satisfaction and commitment to safety compliance in the mining industry. The results showed that work stress and job insecurity had a negative relationship with safety compliance.
The researchers found that only job satisfaction was a significant predictor of safety.
The concept of psychosocial factors at work in mining is difficult to grasp, since it represents workers’ perception and experiences, and reflects many considerations. Some of these considerations relate to the individual worker, while others relate to the conditions of work and the work environment. Still others refer to social and economic influences, which are outside the workplace but which have repercussions within it. The assumption of the project is the influences and effects of psychosocial factors associated with productivity and accidents in mining industry. The main aim of this project is an exploration of psychosocial factors associated with productivity and accidents in mining industry.
A. Physical and Psychosocial Risk Factors in Mining Industry
Mining is globally recognised as one of the most hazardous sectors. The dynamic nature of mining and the constant tampering of soil and rocks present both a direct and perceived threat to workers’ safety (Pule,2011) since they are exposed to a number of hazardous conditions in the physical work environment which include excessive noise, mine gases, mine fires, heat stress, poor visibility and dusty conditions. These hazards in turn can lead to accidents which vary across the mining sector and include rock fall, fires, explosions, mobile equipment accidents, falls from height, entrapment and electrocution (Donoghue, 2004).
Noise is ubiquitous within mining, stemming from a variety of increasingly mechanised practices, including boring, drilling, blasting, cutting, materials handling, ventilation, crushing, conveying and ore processing (Donoghue, 2004). Across this range of practices, McBride (2004) found exposure to noise ranged from 88db to 117db, and concluded that without sufficient ear defence equipment there is wide scope for noise induced hearing loss. In addition to the well documented physiological effects of noise, Chau et al’s., (2009) study showed that hearing impairment was a risk factor for the worker and their colleagues as it prevented the affected from hearing various sounds and warning messages. In addition hearing disability has been found to affect workers’ orientation and balance, which increases the susceptibility for falls of those afflicted (Gauchard et al., 2006). Furthermore, higher db levels can increase levels of fatigue and impair the efficiency of worker performance (Leka & Jain, 2010). Due to the precariousness of the mine environment, the requirement for workers’ awareness, alertness and cognisance of the risks mines pose is vital for both their own and their colleagues’ safety experience.
However, as McBride (2004) notes, although exposure to noise is a significant occupational mining hazard, conditions in the mining can have a greater impact on the safety experience of mine workers. Likewise, Aidoo and Eshun’s (2012) three year analysis of occupational injury records in Ghanaian mines also found that ground fall and slip falls were major causes of accidents. Additionally they found the most common physical risk factors for injuries to workers legs, hands and heads were caused by faulty machinery, electrocution and vehicular accidents.
Psychosocial hazards are define by the International Labour Organization (1986) in terms of the interactions among job content, work organization and management, and other environmental and organizational conditions, and the employees’ competencies and needs. Various psychosocial risk factors like work demands, low levels of control over aspects of the work, inadequate support from supervisors and/or co- workers, lack of role clarity, poor organisational change management, low recognition and reward, poor organisational justice, extreme environmental conditions, remote work, isolated work, inappropriate behaviours, traumatic events, fatigue, alcohol and other drug use, poor physical health that organizations should assess as part of the risk management process.
Psychosocial risk factors influence early retirement and absence from work. Physical and psychosocial risk factors are known to be predictors for lower back symptoms in miners. Various physical and psychosocial risk factors can affect mine workers’ safety and health. Without due diligence to mine safety, these risk factors can affect workers’ safety experience, in terms of near misses, disabling injuries and accidents experienced or witnessed by workers.
Alper and Karsh’s (2009) review of the safety violations literature in occupational health and safety found that violations had several psychosocial antecedents, with the outcome of violations being the increased risk of accidents. Similar to Zohar and Luria’s (2005) findings, they found that workers’ perceptions of their organisation’s safety climate was shaped by the policy and procedural actions of top management and the supervisory actions exhibited by shop floor or frontline supervisors. When workers perceived their superiors condoned violations there was an increased risk of violations and subsequent increased risk of accidents. Similarly, Ghosh et al. (2004) found that when supervisory support for health and safety was low, with a preoccupation on workers achieving production targets, workers’ health and safety behaviours altered.
Alper and Karsh (2009) also found that lack of support stemmed not only from superiors but also from lack of worker support in the systems of work implemented, the organisation, the environment, the task itself and the tools and technologies used to accomplish the task, which were all shown to influence workers’ propensity to violate safety. In terms of the nature of the task, when workers are under time pressure with an emphasis on quicker ways of working to save time, when they have multiple conflicting demands and when they are conducting work which has the potential to be physically exhausting they are more likely to enact safety violations. Pule (2011) notes how mining is associated with long and awkward hours which, coupled with the intense physical demands of the work, can result in worker fatigue and can affect workers’ safety experience.
Wadsworth et al., (2003) studied the associations and interactions between the level of psychosocial risk factors, for example, job demand, decision latitude and social support (Karasek, 1979); intrinsic effort, extrinsic effort and reward dimensions (Siegrist, 1996), temporal risk factors (for example, long, unsociable hours; unpredictable hours night work, shift work) and physical risk factors (for example, noise, harmful substances and fumes), and workers’ risk of accidents.
Wellens and Smith (2011) elaborated on Wadsworth et al.’s, (2003) research by assessing how cumulative exposure to a combination of psychosocial, temporal and physical workplace risk factors were related to the occurrence of occupational accidents. Their findings showed that low levels of decision latitude and low levels of reward were both associated with occupational accidents. Across all studies they found that the co-occurrence of physical hazards and temporal stressors had a greater significant association with occupational accidents than the predictive predictor of each risk factor separately. When analysing results by job type, across all studies a significant association was found between manual occupations and occupational accidents, which the authors inferred was due to a combination of the increased prevalence of physical hazards and the temporal organisation of working hours in the ‘blue- collar’ sector.
While, Wellens and Smith (2011) concluded that psychosocial factors have only a minor contributory role in occupational accidents.
In recent years there has been a growing awareness among mining companies of the need to address physical injuries and environmental issues, there remains a lack of knowledge about how psychosocial risks independently and in conjunction with physical risks affect the health, general wellbeing and quality of life of mine workers.
The underground coal mining industry experienced a spectacular decline in productivity during the 1970s. labour productivity grew through the 1950s and 1960s but fell at an average annual rate of more than 7% during the 1970s. The factors most frequently cited to explain this phenomenon is the Coal Mine Health and Safety Act of 1969 (CMHSA). Without doubt, these regulations decrease productivity by diverting resources from output- producing to accident-reducing activities. India has emerged as the third largest coal producer in the world after China and USA with a 9% share of the total global coal production.
“Productivity” herein has been calculated by dividing the tons of coal shipped during a year by number of man-days worked during that year. As approximately 40 percent of a mine’s total operating cost goes for labour, the factors that affect labour’s productivity should be evaluated. In Illinois from 1970 to 1973 are used to illustrate the relation between mine productivity and the various factors that seem to influence that productivity. The factors examined include the natural conditions in the mine, the production capacity of the mine, the age of the operation, the extent of coal preparation, and the effective use of mining equipment and time. The results obtained, as expected, were not sufficiently precise to single out any individual factor and quantify its influence on mine productivity. Numerous factors influence underground mines productivity. The factors are thickness of the seam mined, roof and floor conditions in the mine, size (annual production capacity) of the operation, age of the operation, quality of the finished product (coal preparation), and effective use of mining equipment.
The influence that the thickness of the coal seam being mined has on productivity has been demonstrated by Risser (1966), who showed that an increase in thickness of seams mined resulted in an increase in the productivity. Shields et al. (1954) showed that productivity increased significantly with an increase in seam thickness up to about 84 inches and then tended to level off somewhat for thicker seams. Given (1973) mentioned that increased difficulty of mining very thick seams reduces productivity. The efficiency with which available equipment and time are used also influences mine productivity. In underground mining, any increase in output over 450 tons of coal per mining unit per shift adds to mine productivity.
The coal mining industry in India aims to reach at a total coal production of 30 percent from the current share of 15 percent from underground mines by 2030 (Prasad 2009), while opencast mining has seen major advancements, underground mining has remained sluggish for the past five years with an output per manshift (OMS) hovering in the range of 0.70–0.77 tonne. Such a low OMS compared to other countries indicates that the norms of equipment productivity adapted and attained in India are themselves low (Kulshreshtha, Parikh 2001). Technology is a critical and long-run factor which influences the productivity of mines (Topp et al. 2008). While technical progress seems to have been the major driving factor behind productivity growth in opencast mining, efficiency growth has been the most important factor in the growth of underground mine productivity (Kulshreshtha, Parikh, 2002).
In search of a critical problem affecting the productivity of an underground coal mine, the problems are: (i) More travelling time of the transportation equipment: time needed to be optimized in order to save both time and production cost. (ii) Poor pull – Improper blast round design, Inaccurate wedge cut formation, Improper direction of holes, Improper length of shot holes, Improper spacing between the holes, Improper charging, Inadequate stemming, Excessive stemming Improper delay mechanism, Improper connection, Presence of shale bands or other deformities on the face, (iii) Improper fragmentation (iv) Breakdown of SDL (v) Breakdown of chain conveyor (Skat) (vi) Breakdown of belt conveyor (vii) Breakdown of drill machine (viii) Improper lead distance (ix) Poor performance of SDL (x) Improper ventilation (xi) Improper maintenance (xii) Electric faults and power tripping (xiii) Roof problems (xiv) Availability of water. There is always scope for improvement regarding productivity and overall effective use of resources.
Siang (2015) describes job satisfaction as the feelings regarding your job and how happy you feel within that job. This can be affected by many factors such as company policies and interpersonal relationships. Holland (2018) explained that job satisfaction is dependent on a lot of factors within an individual’s control. He stated that satisfaction is known to influence not only employees but also their organizations. Medina (2017) found that an individual’s goal orientation can influence their training and training satisfaction. Goal orientation and satisfaction were found to be positively related. This implies that highly satisfied employees tend to be highly goal-oriented. Harari et al (2018) addressed literature gaps with respect to major facets of enthusiasm and assertiveness. Enthusiasm was directly related to job satisfaction. This shows that employees who have the drive to achieve tend to be more satisfied in their jobs. Izvercian et al (2016) found out that six main job satisfaction variables emerged with sub-elements. They included determinants in a new honeycomb model of job satisfaction variables which offer a strategic perspective for human resources management.
Many researchers have studied Job satisfaction. Herzberg (1959) is one of the earliest researchers known to have studied this area. He theorized that job satisfaction is influenced by two set factors. These factors are satisfiers and dissatisfies which can also be referred to as hygiene factors and motivators. He listed hygiene factors as company and administrative policies, supervision, salary, interpersonal relationships and working conditions. The motivators were the work itself, recognition, achievement, responsibility and advancement opportunities.
According to Aiken (2002), organizational and managerial support has a big effect on job satisfaction and dissatisfaction. Managerial support is important in eliminating job dissatisfaction and improving employee retention. According to the author, job satisfaction increases with an increase in managerial support. According to Clark (1997), gender satisfaction differential disappears for the young, more educated professionals and those in male-dominated workplaces. According to Clark et al (1996) workers reported satisfaction levels are shown to be inversely related to their comparison wages. Satisfaction levels were also shown to decline with the level of education. The author’s findings point to job satisfaction decrease with an increase with wages.
Yuen et al (2018) analyzed the core determinants of job satisfaction and performance of seafarers. The results showed that job satisfaction is correlated with job performance. Stress levels associated with working onboard, rewards attractiveness and the appeal of job design have high impacts on the job. According to these authors, job satisfaction increases with an increase in compensation. Gul et al (2018) did a study on faculty members of universities. They found that individual’s job satisfaction from high power distance culture depends on their cultural norms because they give more preference to cultural norms than their own needs and demands. Thies and Serrattt (2018) found that factors that contributed to nursing degree faculty job satisfaction were interpersonal interactions, professional status and autonomy and dissatisfaction was associated with salary, organizational policies and the workload. These authors findings proved that professional status which can be linked to great growth and promotional opportunities led to better satisfied employees. In addition, interpersonal relationships which can actually be influenced by managerial support led to job satisfaction. The study showed an importance in interpersonal relations, salary and organizational policies which are some of the factors studied in this research.
Shen and Tang (2018) explored the roles of transfer of training and job satisfaction in the relationship between training and customer service quality. The results showed that training indirectly influences customer service quality through the mediation of transfer of training and job satisfaction. This training will be greatly influenced by managerial support which is the fifth factor being studied in this research. Diriwaechter and Shvartsmana (2018) analyzed how individual job satisfaction is affected by salary changes. The results showed that wage increase have a statistically significant positive effect on job satisfaction for up to four years after the increase. The study proved that salary does play an important role in job satisfaction. Daud (2016) explored the level of job satisfaction and tried to determine the relationship between the individual and work- related factors on job satisfaction of employees. The study was done cause job hopping and employee turnover are becoming a recent phenomenon. The author found that salary, growth opportunities and maturity level led to higher job satisfaction. The current study will try to investigate how salary and growth opportunities influence job satisfaction. It will either agree or disagree with Daud study.
Jo and Shim (2015) found that work-related characteristics especially coworkers’ and supervisors’ support significantly affect police officer’s job satisfaction. They also found that neither demographics nor community characteristics influenced job satisfaction. The study once again proved a positive relationship between job satisfaction and managerial support. Ong and Theseira (2016) found that individuals at the start of their careers may overestimate the extent to which risk matching matters for their future job satisfaction. These risk matching matters might play a huge role in the long term with respect to salary and growth opportunities. Jung et al (2017) investigated doctoral level researchers’ job satisfaction related to the employment sector while controlling for demographic and work characteristics. The findings suggested that scientists at a higher level of collaboration tend to report a higher level of job satisfaction. Academic scientists proved to be more satisfied than those in industry. Collaboration is closely related to managerial support and their study proved that the more managerial support there is, the more the job satisfaction. Schlett and Ziegler (2014) hypothesized that job satisfaction depended less on cognitions and found that their hypothesis was correct. Eyupoglu et al (2017) accounted for uncertainty and vagueness of obtained initial data information they proposed a fuzzy rule based approach to evaluate job satisfaction in an organization.
Tarvid (2015) studied job satisfaction of tertiary graduates taking into account differences between bachelors and masters. They found that master’s degree tends to decrease job satisfaction. Masters graduates were found to be more sensitive to career opportunities than bachelors. The results showed that the most important groups influencing job satisfaction are content, risks and compensation and support activities. This study agreed that job satisfaction and salary are positively correlated.
Liu and White (2011) found that the primary determinants of job satisfaction were intrinsic factors that the work that they do makes employed satisfied. Gender, job positions, education levels, work experience and hospital size were not significant in determining job satisfaction. Job- related predictors of job satisfaction were ability utilization and recognition. Hauff et al (2015) wanted to find out how national culture moderates different job characteristics’ influences on job satisfaction. Results showed that some job characteristics’ impacts vary significantly between countries. Jongil and Choi (2017) investigated how and whether different sources of social support influenced quality of life and job satisfaction among teachers. The findings revealed that director- colleague support predicted job satisfaction. These results proved that managerial support is of the utmost importance in job satisfaction among the teachers.
Pohl and Galletta (2017) investigated supervisor emotional support as a strong determinant of job satisfaction. The results showed that cross-level interactions were significant for job satisfaction. The employees with high levels of work engagement showed high levels of job satisfaction and this relationship was stronger when the supervisor emotional support at group level was high. This also proves that managerial support is very important for job satisfaction among the employees. Holland (2018) identified five key factors to job satisfaction. Engagement in the work is believed to lead to more focus and productivity. Regardless of the job, employees want to feel respected in the workplace. They tend to be more satisfied when they are well-respected and appreciated. They also state that fair pay and a happy balanced life contribute to job satisfaction. This study in part proved that employees are interested in work-life balance, growth opportunities and salary.
Research on the unsafe behavior of miners at home and abroad has taken place for more than 70 years. However, studies in recent years have shown that more than 94.09% of mine accidents were attributed to human factors. However different studies had shown different aspects of safety related issues in mining industry.
Amongst of many studies one study found that safety atmosphere and safety knowledge are negatively correlated with UBP (unsafe behavior propagation), and the relationship between safety atmosphere and UBP is partly mediated by safety knowledge.
One paper reveals the effect of the psychological state in the coal mine accidents, and the exploration about the methods to evaluate the safety psychological states in the safety production. It tells that the miners’ healthy psychological state is influenced by many factors, such as physical and emotional condition, concept, work environment, family status, including the fatigue as emotional factors, tired and rebellious attitude, lucky and conform psychology, miners own quality, environmental factors and other factors’ influences to the workers’ safety psychological state, coming to the conclusion that safety psychology education has a great significance in the coal mine safety production.
It is estimated that mental disorders (including mood, anxiety and substance use disorders), affect up to 1 in 3 people world-wide across their lifetime. Male-dominated industries such as mining, construction, manufacturing and agriculture are often considered hazardous occupations. The workforce can be highly remunerated, however, the roles are demanding. Typical workplace characteristics often include long shift length, and the work setting is often in rural or remote, geographically isolated locations which can require employees to work away from home, resulting in displacement from family, friends and social networks. There are some major factors causing stress. The factors are: time management, compensation system, intrinsic factors, empowerment, role overload, time for himself and his family.
So there exists many psychological factors which can cause of accidents and productivity in mining industry.
One study has found that levels of psychological distress in metalliferous mine workers are significantly higher than the average employed Australian worker and support the importance of a focus on mental health within the mining sector. It has also identified a number of social and workplace issues, giving the mining industry an opportunity to target these within appropriate multicomponent workplace interventions that address personal and social factors as well as workplace characteristics. Such interventions should aim to reduce psychological distress with subsequent potential benefits to both individuals and the mining industry as a whole.
On the other hand a study conducted by Petrus Nel & Martina Kotze, had found fairly low levels of burnout. They exhibited high levels of mindfulness, which means that they had the ability to focus their attention on events unfolding in their work context and to stay aware of present situations and experiences. They also had high levels of PsyCap, but not as high as their levels of mindfulness. The results of the present study showed that the resources mindfulness and PsyCap may counteract burnout in a mining environment. Other studies have shown that mindfulness can improve safety behavior in the mining industry.
This paper mainly focuses on the effect of physical, psychosocial, productivity, job satisfaction, safety related factors, and distress & other psychological factors which are associated with the accidents and productivity in Mining Industry. As we are going to work with mining workers and our main aim is to find whether or not the psychosocial factors will influence the productivity and the accident. So, we want to expand our knowledge about their way of the working, how they usually take precaution to prevent accident and how they increase their productivity in their working industry and their psychological, physical, social aspects which are associated with their working conditions. After interpreting the data and result we will make arrangements for different workshops on the basis of result in the Mines from which the data would be collected. These area of knowledge not only help in capacity building in the area of applied psychology but also in the areas of education, commerce, geography and geo-informatics.
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Conflict of interest: None
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